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Checklist of Amanita found in
sub-Saharan Africa

PROVISIONAL - 17.vii.2008 - PROVISIONAL

Compilation and Text by
Rodham E. Tulloss1 and Lindsay Possiel
1P. O. Box 57, Roosevelt, New Jersey 08555-0057, USA
contact

Photographs of indigenous African species by David Arora
Photographs of European species by R. E. Tulloss.
Photograph of A. marmorata (Oahu, Hawaii, USA) by Jon Dale.

[As is the case for the Amanita Studies site in general, good photographs accompanied by well-dried and well-annotated material are always welcome and will serve to improve this page.  Addresses of the editors (to whom such images and documented exsiccata may be sent) are on the Amanita Studies home page.]

This checklist includes taxa claimed for Africa. A few may well be misidentified as European taxa, although some European species have definitely been introduced. There are probably a few taxonomic synonyms listed separately. Some "taxa" are listed as excluded for diverse reasons.  Despite these caveats, it is reasonable to suspect that the number of taxa in Amanita from Africa including the Malagasay Republic will eventually be demonstrated to exceed 100, perhaps considerably.

Species described from or known from central Africa are presented in bold faced type.

Sixteen taxa demonstrated, or suspected, to be present in Zambia or Zimbabwe due to dried specimens and photographs sent to me by David Arora since 1999 are indicated by having the country name printed in blue.  When a taxons presence is confirmed microscopically based on the new collections, the blue entry is underlined.

For a given species, an asterisk (*) marks the country containing the type locality. A bold, italic, red question mark (?) indicates missing or doubtful data. A bullet () before a list entry indicates that RET has reviewed one or more regional collections of that taxon personally.  [ B ] provides a link from each taxon's list of references to this page's bibliography.

Note on development of reliable data on sporesize and shape and its presentation: Spore measurements in Beelis publications are not reliable for the most part. Often, but not always, the Beeli numbers are too lowby as much as 20% or more. Measuring Gilberts drawings of spores from the original collections of Goossens (in [GIL41]) gives a more reliable feeling for size and shape, although the sample sizes of Gilbert are small at best. For species in section Lepidella, the best available data continues to be that in [BAS69]. In this checklist, updates on spore data are provided for all species examined by RET.  RET measures spores in lateral view -- so that the adaxial flattening and apiculus are clearly in view and in focus.  Also both ends of the spore must be in focus for a measurement to be made.  For every specimen from which spores are examined, the average length (L) and the average width (W) are computed and reported.  The length/width ratio (Q) for every spore is computed and reported.  For every individual specimen, an average Q is computed (Q) and reported.  As a standard process step, L/W is computed and compared to Q as a check on computations.  [The two values will not always be precisely equal due to rounding; however, they will be very similar especially for less elongated spores.]  For each species examined, the overall average of length, width, and Q for all spores measured is computed and reported (L', W', and Q').

Location of types and other collections:  Herbarium name codes in this paragraph follow Holmgren et al. (?).  Material collected or utilized by Patouillard, Bouriquet, and Buyck in the Malagasay Republic is to be found in P (PC), at least in part.  Parts of these collections, particularly some holotypes, were in the Malagasy Republic Herbarium (TAN), but have been destroyed by fire. Material of Beeli, Goossens, Heinemann, Verbeken, and Walleyn is in BR.  Gilbert's herbarium is presumed lost; however, duplicates of Gilbert's material may be deposited in other herbaria around the world.  Collections reported upon by Reid, Pegler, Shah-Smith, and Pearson are often to be found in K, at least in part.  Material upon which reports were written by Harkonen et al. are to be found in H.  Material on which Bas reported is often in L, at least in part.  David Arora's collections can be found in SFSU and the private herbarium of RET.  Use the "contact" link [ top ] to ask RET about material utilized in preparation of this document.

Acknowledgment: We are very grateful to Mr. David Arora for his permission to use his beautiful photographs of collections from Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Intra-document links to sections of the genus:

Section Amanita
Section Vaginatae
Section Caesareae
Section Amidella
Section Lepidella
Section Phalloideae
Section Validae

Other useful intra-document links:

Taxa excluded or not yet categorized by section
Bibliography
(incomplete)

Start of List

Subgenus Amanita -- Spores amyloid. [ top ]

Section Amanita -- Stipe off-center upward in button stage of development (usually with a bulbous base, at least when young. Curiously, only three indigenous taxa of this section are known to occur in central and southern Africa. [ top ] [ full site list for sect. Amanita ]

bingensis (Beeli) R. Heim [including sensu R. Heim] [BEE31] [HEIM40] [GIL41] [MOR87] [RAW93] [ B ] (Congo*, Malawi?) Looks like a species of the "A. ceciliae group," but has a bulbous stipe base and a volva very like that of A. rubrovolvata S. Imai or A. farinosa Schwein. Illustration in [MOR87] is mislabeled (see A. hemibapha sensu Morris); the description provided is of an annulate species.
Spores [BEE31]: 5 - 6 3 - 4.5 m; est. Q = 1.45.
Spores of type [from illustration in GIL41]: [4/1/1] 6.5 - 8 5 - 6.5 m; Q = 1.30.
Spores of type from BR: [28/1/1] (5.5-) 5.7 - 6.9 (-7.0) (4.4-) 4.5 - 5.3 (-5.6) m, (L = 6.3 m; W = 4.9 m; Q = (1.15-) 1.17-1.42 (-1.49); Q = 1.29).

Amanita cf. bingensis (Zambia) Apparently more robust and with more red in the pigmentation than in the east Africa species (above).
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [60/3/2] (7.3-) 7.5 - 9.8 (-11.0) (4.5-) 5.1 - 6.5 (-7.6) m, (L = 8.3 - 8.9 m; L = 8.6 m; W = 5.4 - 6.2 m; W = 5.8 m; Q = (1.22-) 1.25 - 1.80 (-1.83); Q = 1.34 - 1.64; Q = 1.48).








muscaria (L. : Fr.) Lam. var. muscaria [BER65] [MOR87] [MycRes:91] [SK53] [HSM94] [RYV94] [PSS97] [ B ] (Europe*, Congo, Malawi, Morocco, South Africa ("introduced"), Tanzania ("introduced"), Zambia ("might be introduced"), Zimbabwe (probably introduced).)  RET has reviewed and confirmed the determination of Tanzanian material.
Spores [from European, Asian, African, S. American, and Alaskan matl.]: [435/22/18] (7.4-) 8.5 - 11.5 (-13.1) (5.6-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-9.8) m, (L = (8.7-) 9.1 - 11.2 (-11.4) m; L = 10.0 m; W = (6.5-) 6.9 - 8.1 (-8.2) m; W = 7.50 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.21 - 1.47 (-1.75) m; Q = 1.26 - 1.41 (-1.42) m; Q = 1.34).




pantherina (DC. : Fr.) Krombh. [BER65] [MycRes:91] [ B ] (Europe*, Morocco, South Africa ("introduced") )
Spores [from European matl.]: [260/13/6] (7.5-) 9.0 - 12.0 (-14.0) (5.2-) 6.2 - 8.2 (-9.8) m, (L = 9.6 - 11.2 (-11.3) m; L = 10.3 m; W = 6.7 - 7.7 (-8.0) m; W = 7.2 m; Q = (1.20-) 1.28 - 1.62 (-1.77); Q = 1.32 - 1.51 (-1.61); Q = 1.42).




pulverotecta Bas [BAS82] [ B ] (Malawi*.)  This species has a powdery volva similar to that of A. bingenis, above.  However, the bright pigments of the latter species are lacking.
Spores [BAS82]: (10.6-) 10.9 - 12.8 (-14.8) 5.7 - 7.4 m, (Q = 1.6 - 2.0; Q = 1.75).

rhodophylla Beeli [BEE31] [GIL41] [RAW93] [ B ] (Congo*, Malawi.)  Annulate. This could be a species analogous to the strongly limbate to volvate species of Latin America that have bulbous stipes and, hence, belong in section Amanita.
Spores [BEE31]: 4 - 6 m diam.
Spores of type [from illustration in GIL41]: [1/1/1] 8.1 7.2 m, (Q = 1.13).

[ top of current section -- Amanita ]

Section Caesareae -- Stipe totally elongating (with no basal bulb, do not confuse cupulate volval remains with a basal bulb), bearing partial veil. [ top ] [ full site list for sect. Caesareae ]

annulatovaginata Beeli var. annulatovaginata [BEE27] [BEE31] [BUY94] [GIL41] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*.)
Spores of type [GIL41]: [4/1/1] 11 - 13.9 6.5 - 9.9 m; Q = 1.40 - 1.77; Q = 1.60.

According to Gilbert [GIL41], = var. atra Beeli.
Spores of "lectotype" of atra [GIL41]: [5/1/1] 9.8 - 11 6.2 - 7.6 m; Q = 1.46 - 1.60; Q = 1.52.

According to Gilbert [GIL41], = var. amethystina
Beeli .
Spores [BEE31]: 8 - 10 6 - 8 m; est. Q = 1.3.

annulatovaginata var. citrina Beeli [BEE31] [GIL41] [ B ] (Congo*.) 
Spores of type [GIL41]: [2/1/1] 12.3 - 12.9 7.8 - 8.3 m; Q = 1.48 - 1.65; Q = 1.57.

elegans Beeli [BEE31] [GIL41] [PSS97]  [ B ] (Congo*, Zambia.)  With fragile annulus. Spores [BEE31]: 7 - 8 m diam.
Spores [PSS97]: 7.5 - 9 6.5 - 8 m, (L = 8.50.55 m; W = 7.30.38 m; Q = 1.17).
Spores [GIL41]: [2/1/1] 7.0 - 8 (-9) 6 - 6.8 (-8.5) m, (
Q = 1.17 - 1.18; Q = 1.18).

hemibapha sensu Morris [MOR87] [RAW93] [ B ] (Malawi.)  Looks like an orange-brown caesarea; see A. mafingensis; illus. in MOR87 is labeled in error "A. bingensis."
Spores:
?
.

infusca E.-J. Gilbert ex Singer [GIL41] [SIN51] [PSS97] [ B ] (=A. umbrina Beeli non Pers.) (Congo*, Zambia.)   
Spores [GIL41]: [4/1/1] 9.1 - 10.0 6.4 - 7.3 m, (Q = 1.30 - 1.51; Q = 1.40). 
Spores [PSS97]: 10 - 13 6.5 - 9 m, (L = 11.20.8 m; W = 7.40.8 m; Q = 1.50).

loosii Beeli [BEE36] [GIL41] [PRT77] [RAW93] [WallVerb98a] [ B ] (Congo*.)  See discussion under A. zambiana, below. Pileus snow white becoming milk white with chamois disc.
Spores from lectotype [WallVerb98a]: [10/1/1] 10.1 - 12.5 7.4 - 10.7 m; est. Q = 1.25.

luteoflava Beeli [BEE31] [GIL41] [ B ] (Congo*.)  With thin, fragile, superior annulus.
S pores [BEE31]: 7 - 8 m diam.
Spores of type [from illustration of GIL41] (none correctly oriented): 10.5 - 13.5 9.4 - 12.8 m.

mafingensis Hrk. & Saarim. in Hrk., Saarim. & Mwasumbi [HSM94] [PSS97] [ B ] (Tanzania*, Zambia.) Belonging to Amanita  stirps Hemibapha.
Spores [HSM94]: 9.5 - 13 5.5 - 8.5 m, (L = 10.6 m; W = 6.9 m; Q = 1.44 - 1.66; Q = 1.53).
Spores [from isotype in H]: [20/1/1] 10.5 - 12.7 (-15.8) (6.8-) 7.1 - 8.9 (-10.5) m, (L = 11.6 m; L = 11.6 m; W = 7.8 m; W = 7.8 m; Q = (1.34-) 1.35 - 1.61 (-1.64); Q = 1.49; Q = 1.49).

masasiensis Hrk. & Saarim. in Hrk., Saarim. & Mwasumbi [HSM94] [ B ] (Tanzania*.) Belonging to Amanita stirps Hemibapha.
Spores [HSM94]: 8.5 - 12 6 - 9 m, (L = 10.0 m; W = 6.3 m; Q = 1.20 - 1.50; Q = 1.36.)
Spores [including those from isotype (H)]: [40/2/2] (8.5-) 8.6 - 10.8 (-12.1) (5.5-) 6.0 - 7.0 (-9.0) m, (L = 9.6 - 9.8 m; L = 9.7 m; W = 6.3 - 6.6 m; W = 6.4 m; Q = (1.35-) 1.37 - 1.66 (-1.87); Q = 1.47 - 1.56; Q = 1.51).

strobilaceovolvata Beeli [BEE35] [BUY94] [GIL41] [PSS97] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*, Zambia .) (=A. fibrilosa (Beeli) E.-J. Gilbert fide E.-J. Gilbert [GIL41]. Pileus with distinct umbo, brown, with marginal striations occupying more than 50% of radius.
Spores [BEE31]: 6 - 7 m diam.
Spores of both types [GIL41]: [4/2/2] 9.3 - 11.3 8.1 - 9.5 (-9.9) m.

tanzanica Hrk. & Saarim. in Hrk., Saarim. & Mwasumbi [HSM94] [ B ] (Tanzania*.)  Belonging to Amanita stirps Hemibapha.  Spores [from isotype (H)]: [40/1/1] (8.5-) 9.0 - 11.4 (-12.6) (5.0-) 5.5 - 6.7 (-7.8) m, (L = 10.4 m; W = 6.0 m; Q = (1.42-) 1.50 - 1.93 (-2.02); Q = 1.72).

zambiana Pegler & Piearce [BUY94] [PP80] [PSS97] [RAW93] [RYV94] [WallVerb98a]     [ B ] (Congo, Malawi, Zambia*, Zimbabwe.)  Belonging to Amanita stirps Hemibapha. Pileus suggests A. caesarea, with short marginal striation, becoming white with olive-brown disc; volva breaking up into polygonal plaques, becomes quite dark on exterior with age. Buyck as well as Walleyn and Verbeken feel this is a posterior synonym of A. loosii. My only reservations are that the latter species is described (1) as snow white at first and milk white with a chamois disc in age, (2) as having a volva the surface of which is simply described as brownish and is not illustrated as breaking up into polygonal plaques.
Spores [including those from my type study]: [140/6/3] (9.9-) 10.0 - 13.5 (-21.0) (7.0-) 7.8 - 10.8 (-12.5) m, (L = 10.8 - 12.3 (-13.0) m; L = 11.6 m; W = 8.2 - 9.5 (-10.5) m; W = 9.1 m; Q = (1.09-) 1.13 - 1.53 (-1.91); Q = 1.19 - 1.30 (-1.41); Q = 1.29).

[ top of current section -- Caesareae ]

Section Vaginatae -- Stipe totally elongating (with no basal bulb, do not confuse cupulate volval remains with a basal bulb), not bearing partial veil. [ top ] [ full site list for sect. Vaginatae ]

argentea sensu Berthet & Boidin [BerBoi66] [TUL94][ B ] (Cameroon.) (Possibly not correctly determined. Material was sent to Huijsman and may be in L.
Spores [from RET study of type of A. argentea Huijsman and other European matl.]: [200/9/8] (9.1-) 10.0 - 13.5 (-17.7) (6.4-) 7.5 - 10.6 (-13.6) m, (L = (10.8-) 11.1 - 12.6 m; L = 11.5 m; W = (8.1-) 8.4 - 9.8 m; W = 8.8 m; Q = (1.04-) 1.14 - 1.51 (-1.81); Q = (1.21-) 1.27 - 1.39; Q = 1.32).

aurea (Beeli) E.-J. Gilbert [BEE31] [GIL41] [Kew6] [RAW93] [RYV94] [PSS97] [ B ] (Congo*, Uganda, Zambia.)  Extremely small spores were reported.
Spores [BEE31]: 4 - 5 m diam.
Spores of type [from illustration in GIL41]: [3/1/1] 5 - 6 4.5 - 5.2 m, (Q = 1.01 - 1.10; Q = 1.06).

calopus (Beeli) E.-J. Gilbert [BEE31] [GIL41] [RAW93] [PSS97] [ B ] (Congo*, Malawi, Zambia.) 
Spores [BEE31]: 10 - 14 6 - 8 m; est. Q = 1.7.
Spores [GIL41]: [3/1/1] 13 - 13.5 7 - 8.5 m; Q = 1.65.
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [20/1/1] 7.8 - 13.6 (-15.1) (5.5-) 6.0 - 8.8 (-9.0) m, (L = 11.7 m; W = 7.7 m; Q = (1.30-) 1.39 - 1.65 (-1.78); Q = 1.53).



















flammeola Pegler & Piearce [PP80] [RAW93] [RYV94] [PSS97]
[ B (Malawi?,
Zambia*.) Yellow-orange at first, becoming quite pale in age or after exposure; pileus with pronounced umbo; stipe exannulate. Spores said to be very pale salmon in mass.
Spores [
PP80]: 12.5 - 16.5 6.8 - 8.5 m; Q = 1.95.
Spores [from type study]: [40/2/1] (8.6-) 10.5 - 13.3 (-15.4) (5.7-) 6.3 - 7.7 (-9.0) m, (L = 11.5 - 11.6 m; L = 11.5 m; W = 6.8 - 6.9 m; W = 6.9 m; Q = (1.39-) 1.54 - 1.86 (-2.03); Q = 1.67 - 1.69; Q = 1.68).

fulva sensu auct. afric. [RAW83] [ B ] (Malawi.)  Probably not correctly determined as A. fulva (Schaeff.) Fr.
Spores [from European matl.]: [300/13/10] (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.5 (-19.3) (8.2-) 9.3 - 12.0 (-15.5) m, (L = 10.6 - 12.0 (-12.3) m; L = 11.2 m; W = 9.8 - 11.4 (-11.6) m; W = 10.6 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.11 (-1.25); Q = 1.05 - 1.08 (-1.09); Q = 1.06).

hovae Bouriquet [BOU42] [RAW93] [ B ] (Malagasay*.)  Poorly known, could be properly placed in sect. Amanita if it has a truly bulbous stipe base. Cap red with short marginal striations. Volva entirely left at stipe base with fairly large membranous limbs. Cross-sectional drawing in [BOU42] does not show the stipe and volva as separate structuressuggesting that the volva is limbate on a basal bulb. Annulus is drawn is a few fibrils, and Bouriquet calls the species exannulate. It could be related to A. pudica or A. robusta (see below); or it could be a species imported with the Eucalyptus under which it was found.
Spores: 7 - 10 5.5 - 7 m; approx. Q = 1.35.

pudica (Beeli) E.-J. Gilbert [BEE36] [GIL41a] [BUY94] [WAL96]  [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*, Zambia, Zimbabwe.)  Exannulate.  A striking pink species!
Spores [WAL96]: (7.0-) 8.2 - 10.9 (-11.3) (4.9-) 5.5 - 7.9 m, (Q = 1.42 - 1.49).




robusta Beeli [BEE31] [GIL41] [RAW93] [HSM94] [ B ] (Congo*, Malawi.)  Stipe said to have a fibrillose annulus.
Spores [BEE31]: 7 - 8 5 - 6 m; est. Q = 1.35.
Spores of type [from illustrations of GIL41]: [2/1/1] 8.6 - 9.6 (-10.2) 6.4 - 7.4 (-8.2) m, (
Q = 1.30 - 1.34; Q = 1.32).

tainaomby R. Heim ex E.-J. Gilbert [HEM36] [GIL41] [ B ] (Malagasay*.) Poorly known. Supposedly associated with cattle and their excrement. The fact that the species is supposedly poisonous suggests it is misplaced in this section; however, this may be false folk lore. The margin is intensely striate, the distribution of volval material could suggest the "A. ceciliae group." Heim made no mention of a basal bulb. The type bore no mature spores according to Gilbert (1941). The type was lost with Gilberts herbarium.
Spores [GIL41]: 9.5 - 10.5 8.5 - 10 m; est Q = 1.07.

vaginata sensu auct. afric. [BER65] [Kew6] [RAW93] [ B ] (Morocco, Malawi, Tanzania.)  Very unlikely to be the European species -- A. vaginata (Bull : Fr.) Vitt.; and may include more than one taxon.
Spores [European matl.]: [37/2/1] (8.5-) 9.3 - 13.6 (-16.5) (6.5-) 8.0 - 11.5 (-14.0) m, ( L = 10.9 - 11.3 m; L = 11.1 m; W = 10.0 - 10.1 m; W = 10.0 m; Q = (1.02-) 1.05 - 1.18 (-1.31); Q = 1.10 - 1.12; Q = 1.11).

[ top of current section -- Vaginatae ]

Subgenus Lepidella -- Spores amyloid. [ top ]

Section Amidella -- Margin striate, appendiculate at first, stipe base enclosed by often thick volva.
[ top ] [ full site list for sect. Amidella ]

floccosolivida Beeli [BEE31] [BEE35] [ B ] (Congo*) 
Spores [BEE35]: 5 3 m; est. Q = 1.65.

fulvopulverulenta Beeli [BEE31] [BUY94] [GIL41] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*.)
Spores [BEE31]: 7 - 8 4 m; est. Q = 1.9.
Spores of type [from illustrations of GIL41]: [7/1/1] 7.9 - 11.3 3.7 - 5.2, (Q = 1.82 - 2.23; Q = 2.05). 

fulvosquamulosa Beeli [BEE27] [GIL41] [ B ] (Congo*.)  Gilbert believed this to be synonymous with A. goossensiae. They do seem strikingly similar, and his argument that one collection comprises young material while the other comprises old basidiocarps seems a reasonable one.
Spores [BEE31]: 9 - 10 5 - 6 m; est. Q = 1.7.
Spores [GIL41]: [7/1/1] 8.0 - 10.7 4.4 - 5.7 m, (Q = 1.74 - 2.43; Q = 1.92). 

goossensiae Beeli [BEE27] [GIL41] [RAW93] [ B ] (Congo*, Malawi, Zambia.) Arora 01-580 was collected immature and without a bulb; and, probably as a consequence, the spores seem stressed ([20/1/1] (7.0-) 7.5 - 10.5 (-11.6) (3.8-) 4.1 - 5.0 (-5.1) m). These spores match rather well with those of the goossensiae-fulvosquamulosa pair. Gilbert [GIL41] warns that the species exhibits "polymorphism" to a great degree. In young material the pileus is orangish and darkens to reddish brown with exposure; and the thin white patches of the universal veils inner surface are randomly, but rather densely, distributed over the pileus. The pileus margin is markedly appendiculate. Some young specimens show a weakly formed partial veil that is ephemeral. The volva may enclose as much as half of the stipe.
Spores [BEE27]: 8 - 10 5.5 - 6 m; est. Q = 1.55.
Spores including those from type[GIL41]: [13/2/2] 9.0 - 10.3 4.1 - 6.2 m, (Q = 1.48 - 2.24;Q = 1.78).
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [60/3/2] (7.0-) 9.3 - 13.9 (-14.5) (3.8-) 4.1 - 4.9 (-5.1) m, (L = 9.6 - 12.7 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 4.4 - 4.5 m; W = 4.5 m; Q = 2.62 - 3.11 (-3.12); Q = 2.11 - 2.84; Q = 2.56).)

irreperta E.-J. Gilbert nom. prov. [GIL41] [ B ] (Malagasay.) 
Spores [from representative specimen reviewed by Gilbert]: [35/1/1] (7.6-) 8.0 - 10.3 (-11.2) (4.7-) 4.8 - 6.4 (-6.8) m, (L = 9.3 m; L = 9.3 m; W = 5.6 m; W = 5.6 m; Q = (1.43-) 1.45 - 1.81 (-2.19); Q = 1.66; Q = 1.66).

olivacea Beeli [BEE31] [GIL41] [ B ] (Congo*, Zambia.)  Pileus bears powdery olivaceous material.
Spores [BEE31]: 7 - 9 4 - 5 m; est. Q = 1.8.
Spores [GIL41]: [7/1/1] 8.0 - 9.6 4.1 - 5.6 m, (Q = 1.68 - 2.29; Q = 1.89).

subviscosa Beeli [BEE31] [BUY94] [GIL41] [PSS97] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*, Zambia.)  Margin of cap becoming distinctly striate; volval sac thick on totally elongating stipe; flocculence on upper stipe; exannulate or soon becoming so.
Spores [BEE31]: 6 - 7 3 - 3.5 m; est. Q = 2.0.
Spores of type [GIL41]: [8/1/1] 7.3 - 9.9 3.3 - 4.2 m, (Q = 1.98 - 2.48; Q = 1.19).

subviscosa sensu Pegler & Shah-Sm. [PSS97] [ B ] (Zambia.)  Note: scaled drawing in [PSS97] is half the size of the cap measurements given in the text. Probably not correctly determined as A. subviscosa Beeli.
Spores [PSS97]: 9.5 - 12 5 - 6 m, (L = 10.7 0.9 m; W = 5.7 0.32 m; Q = 1.89).

[ top of current section -- Amidella ]

Section Lepidella -- Margin of pileus appendiculate, usually not striate. When a limbate volva is present, it is usually rather thin. [ top ] [ full site list for sect. Lepidella ]

afrospinosa Pegler & Shah-Sm. [PSS97] [ B ] (Zambia*, Zimbabwe.)  Amanita subsect. Solitariae, s tirps Polypyramis?.  Apparently, this species is liable to parasitization resulting in the context taking on a yellowing reaction to cutting or bruising that the species ordinarily does not have.
Spores [PSS97]: 8 - 9 4 - 5 m, (<>L = 8.350.8 m; W = 4.70.33 m; Q = 1.76).
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [100/5/2] (6.5-) 7.4 - 9.3 (-11.0) (4.4-) 4.5 - 5.9 (-7.0) m, (L = 7.6 - 9.1; L = 8.4 m; W = 5.1 - 5.4 m; W = 5.2 m; Q = (1.29-) 1.42 - 1.86 (-2.04); Q = 1.46 - 1.78; Q = 1.62).

amanitoides Beeli) Bas [BEE32] [BAS69] [ B ] (Congo*, Zambia?.)  Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps Longipes. Pileus dingy whitish with yellowish stains.
Spores [BAS69]: (8.5-) 9 - 11 (-12) 4.5 - 6 m; Q = 1.9 - 1.95.

aureofloccosa Bas [BAS69] [CB62] [Kew6] [ B ] (Congo*, Tanzania, "common in West Africa.")Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae, stirps Thiersii.
Spores [BAS69]: (6-) 7 - 8.5 (-9) (6-) 6.5 - 8.5 m; Q =1.0 - 1.1; est. Q = 1.05.

crassiconus Bas nom. prov. [BAS69] [ B ] (Nigeria, Zambia .)  Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps Crassiconus. Pileus and universal veil gray, somewhat reminiscent of A. magniverrucata Thiers & Ammirati in that the universal veil remains attached to the pileus context by hyphae that do not gelatinize. There is no distinct pileipellis. Tissue of the universal veil has plentiful hyphae and is disordered. Basidia commonly have small clamps.
Spores [BAS69]: (7-) 8 - 10 (-10.5) 6.5 - 7.5 (-8) m; Q = 1.1 - 1.5; Q = 1.3.
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [100/5/4] (7.2-) 8.5 - 10.8 (-16.8) (5.9-) 6.5 - 8.0 (-11.5) m, (L = 9.0 - 9.8 m; L = 9.4 m; W = 7.1 - 7.4 m; W = 7.3 m; Q = (1.13-) 1.19 - 1.43 (-1.46); Q = 1.25 - 1.35; Q = 1.30).

foetidissima D. A. Reid & Eicker [MycRes:91] [PSS97] [ B ] (South Africa*, Zambia .)  Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae, stirps Nauseosa. This species is very similar to A. nauseosa (Wakef.) D. A. Reid.
Spores [MycRes:91]: 7.0 -10.0 6.0 - 8.0 m; est. Q = 1.30.
Spores [from paratype matl.]: [10/1/1] (8.3-) 9.0 - 10.6 (-11.5) 7.0 - 8.5 (-9.0) m, (L = 10.0 m; L = 10.0 m; W = 7.7 m; W = 7.7 m; Q = 1.22 - 1.38 (-1.53); Q = 1.29; Q = 1.29).

labordei Bouriquet [BOU42] [ B ] (Malagasay*.)  Poorly understood species found only in Eucalyptus plantations, possibly infected by the "yellowing syndrome." 
Spores [BOU42]: 9 - 12.5 5.5 - 7 m, with approx. Q = 1.7.

lanosa Beeli [BAS69] [BEE31] [BUY94] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*, Zambia .)  Amanita subsection Solitariae, stirps Chlorinosma. D. Aroras material is immature, but can be determined via [BAS69].
Spores [BAS69]: 7 - 8 (-9) 7 - 8 (-9) m; Q = 1.0 - 1.05 (-1.15); est. Q = 1.02.

lanosula Bas [BAS69] [ B ] (Congo*.)  Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps Chlorinosma.
Spores [BAS69]: 8 - 10 5.5 - 6.5 m; Q = 1.5 - 1.6.

miomboensis Pegler & Shah-Sm. [PSS97] [ B ] (Zambia*.)  Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps ?.
Spores [PSS97]: 8.5 - 10 5.5 - 6.5 m, (L = 9.30.5 m; W = 6.30.3 m; Q = 1.49).

odorata Beeli [BAS69] [BEE31] [BUY94] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*, Zambia .) Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps Cinereoconia.  Pileus bears bluish green to greenish to greenish or olivaceous gray, powdery volva forming pyramidal warts over disc; almond odor is exuded when stipe is cut or broken.
Spores [BAS69]: 8 - 13 (-15) 4.5 - 5.5 (-6.5) m; Q = 1.85 - 2.4.
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [100/5/3] (8.3-) 9.1 - 12.0 (-12.4) (4.0-) 4.4 - 5.1 (-5.5) m, (L = 9.6 - 11.1 m; L = 10.3 m; W = 4.7 - 4.9 m; W = 4.8 m; Q = (1.70-) 1.86 - 2.49 (-2.76); Q = 1.95 - 2.35; Q = 2.17).


pleropus (Kalchbr. & MacOwan) D. A. Reid [REI75] [MycRes:91] [ReiEic96] [PSS97]
[ B ]
(South Africa*,
Zambia.)  Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae, stirps Vittadinii.
Spores [MycRes:91]: 10.0 - 14.0 7.0 - 9.5 m, (est. Q = 1.50).
Spores from gills [ReiEic96]: 9.0 - 11.5 6.2 - 8.0 m, (est. Q = 1.45).
Spores from print [ReiEic96]: 10.0 - 12.0 (-13.0) 7.5 - 9.0 (-11.0) m, (est. Q = 1.35).

praeclara (Pearson) Bas [BAS69] [MycRes:91] [PSS97] [ B ] (South Africa*, Zambia.)  Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae, stirps Thiersii. Context stains lemon yellow to sulfur yellow; reaction paler on pileus surface.
Spores [BAS69]: 8 - 9.5 (-10) 8 - 9 (-10) m; Q = 1.0 - 1.05; est. Q = 1.02.

pulverulenta Beeli [BAS69] [BUY94] [RYV94] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*, Zambia .)  Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps Polypyramis. Bas maintained that this name was a posterior taxonomic synonym of A. boudieri. As a consequence, central African material has been reported under the latter name. Aroras material shows the membranous annulus reported for A. pulverulenta and microscopically is a very good match to Bas information about the type of A. pulverulenta (BR).
Spores from type and "co-type" material of A. pulverulenta [BAS69]: [20/2/2] (10-) 10.5 - 12 (-13.5) (4.5-) 5 - 6.5 m; Q = 1.8 - 2.2 (-2.7); Q' = 2.1.
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [50/1/1] (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.3 (-12.7) (5.5-) 5.6 - 7.0 (-7.4) m, (L = 10.9 m; L = 10.9 m; W = 6.2 m; W = 6.2 m; Q = (1.62-) 1.64 - 1.90 (-1.96); Q = 1.76; Q = 1.76).

robusta Bouriquet var. robusta [BOU41] [BAS69] [ B ] (Malagasay*.) non A. robusta Beeli. Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps ?. Poisonous to dogs.
Spores [BOU41]: 8.5 - 11.5 5 - 7 m, est. Q = 1.65.

robusta var. spinosa Bouriquet [BOU41] [BAS69] [ B ] (Malagasay*.) Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps ?. Bas felt that this would prove to be a distinct sp. from robusta Bouriquet. Poisonous to dogs.
Spores:
?
.

roseolescens (Pearson) Bas [BAS69] [MycRes:91] [ B ] (South Africa*.) Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae, stirps Nauseosa.
Spores [BAS69]: 9 - 11 (-12) 8 - 10 (-10.5) m; Q = 1.15.









singeri Bas [BEL82??] [ B ] (South Africa.) Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae, stirps Vittadinii.
Spores [southern European and Argentine matl.]: [178/10/7] (6.0-) 7.5 - 11.0 (-15.4) (4.5-) 4.9 - 7.5 (-9.5) m, (L = (7.1-) 7.6 - 10.0 m; L = 9.1 m; W = (4.9-) 5.6 - 7.2 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.12-) 1.21 - 1.60 (-2.0); Q = 1.23 - 1.42 (-1.60); Q = 1.39).

solitaria (Bull. : Fr.) Mrat [BAS69] [RAW93] [ B ] (South Africa.)  =echinocephala (Vitt.) Qul.  Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps Solitaria.  Probably this name is used in South Africa to represent one or more taxa that are not the European species.
Spores [BAS69]: 9.0 - 12.0 (-14.5) 6.0 - 8.0 (-11.5) m; Q = 1.3 - 1.75.

strobiliformis (Paul. ex Vitt.) Bertillon sensu auct. [BAS69] [BER80] [RAW93] [RYV94]
[ B ]
(Algeria, Morocco, South Africa.) Amanita subsect. Solitariae, stirps Strobiliformis.  Probably this name is used in South Africa to represent one or more taxa that are not the European species.
Spores [BAS69]: 10 - 13.5 (-14.5) 7 - 8.5 (-9.5) m; Q = 1.4 - 1.6.

veldiei D. A. Reid & Eicker [MycRes:91] [ B ] (South Africa*.) Amanita subsect. Vittadiniae, stirps Hesleri?.
Spores [MycRes:91]: 12.0 - 15.0 7.0 - 8.0 m; est. Q = 1.80.

[ top of current section -- Lepidella ]

Section Phalloideae (Pileus margin not appendiculate. Stipe having bulbous base with limbate volva.) [ top ] [ full site list for sect. Phalloideae ]

alliiodora Pat. [GIL41] [PFI80] [ B ] (Malagasay*.)
Spores of type [GIL41]: [2/1/1] 8.5 - 9.6 7.8 - 8.7 m, (Q = 1.06 - 1.13; Q = 1.09).

marmorata Cleland & E.-J. Gilbert [GIL41] [REI80] [EGR93] [MHW96] [ B ] (Australia*, S. Africa, USA (Hawaii))  =A. marmorata subsp. myrtacearum O. K. Mill. et al. =A. reidii Eicker & Greuning in Eicker, Greuning & D. A. Reid. Quite likely to have been introduced from Australia.
Spores (REI80): 7.0 - 9.5 5.0 - 7.5 (-8.0) m; est. Q = 1.2 - 1.4.
Spores [EGR93]: 7.0 - 10.0 6.0 - 9.0 m; est. Q = 1.14 - 1.31.
Spores: [80/4/1] (6.8-) 7.5 - 10.0 (-11.8) (5.8-) 6.2 - 8.0 (-9.5) m, (L = 8.1 - 9.1 m; L = 8.6 m; W = 6.8 - 7.2 m; W = 7.0 m; Q = (1.06-) 1.11 - 1.40 (-1.67); Q = 1.17 - 1.29; Q = 1.22).


murinacea Pat. [GIL41] [PFI80] [ B ] (Malagasay*.)
Spores of type [GIL41]: [2/1/1] 8.0 - 8.1 6.9 - 7.3 m, (Q = 1.10 - 1.17; Q = 1.14).

phalloides (Fr. : Fr.) Link [BER65] [Kew6] [MycRes:91] [ B ] (Malagasay, Morocco, South Africa ("introduced"), Tanzania ("introduced"), Zambia ("might be introduced").)  At least some South African material previously determined as A. phalloides is A. marmorata.
Spores [from European, American, and Malagasay matl.]: [296/15/14] (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.1 (-13.5) (5.5-) 6.1 - 8.0 (-10.5) m, (L = 8.3 - 9.3 (-9.5) m; L = 8.9 m; W = (6.4-) 6.8 - 7.4 m; W = 7.1 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.12 - 1.47 (-1.70); Q = 1.20 - 1.33 (-1.40); Q = 1.26).




strophiolata Beeli var. strophiolata [BEE27] [GIL41] [BerBoi66] [ B ] (Cameroon, Congo*.)  Dirty white species, with no bulb at stipe base; cap is often very thin, umbonate, and can become markedly striate; annulus is small, thin, membranous, persistent, concolorous, sometimes infundibuliform.  According to [GIL41] the spores have slightly thickened walls, and some have numerous hyaline striations spiraling around them. RET found some such spores on Arora 00-402, but they dont appear to be Amanita spores; something else appears unusualGilberts measurements of spores of Beeli types are usually larger than Beelis measurements from the same material, but not in this case.  Review of the type is needed.
Spores [BEE27]: 10 - 11 6 - 7 m; est. Q = 1.6.
Spores of type [GIL41]: [5/1/1] 8.8- 10.5 5.2 - 6.3 m, (L = 9.8 m; W = 5.6 m; Q = (1.40-) 1.57 - 1.91; Q = 1.75).

strophiolata var. bingensis Beeli [BEE31] [GIL41] [ B ] (Congo*.)  Gilbert [GIL41] believed this variety to be contaxic with the type variety (above). Goossens watercolor shows a thin, sheathing volva in cross-sectionpossibly thinner than that in the type variety. According to the protologue, this var. differs by having a yellowish white cap with a pale ochraceous center that is not always umbonate, a dependent annulus (contradicting Goossens watercolor of the same collection and at least one specimen of the holotype), and smaller spores (disproved by [GIL41]).
Spores [BEE31]: 7 - 9 4 - 5.5 m; est. Q = 1.7.
Spores of original material [GIL41]: [5/1/1] (8.5-) 9.3 - 10.3 5.5 - 6.5 (-7.0) m, (L = 9.7 m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.21-) 1.51 - 1.69; Q = 1.61).
Spores from one basidiome of holotype from BR: [59/1/1] (6.5-) 6.8 - 9.3 (-10.3) (4.0-) 4.6 - 6.0 (-6.5) m, (L = 7.9 m; W = 5.3 m; Q = (1.23-) 1.35 - 1.68 (-1.82); Q = 1.49). [It is my impression that the spore distribution was abnormal (with the average length low, possibly resulting in lower Q than would be found in spores from more recent, well-collected, well-dried material.]

thejoleuca Pat. [GIL41] [PFI80] [ B ] (Malagasay*.)
Spores of type [GIL41] (none correctly oriented): 8.6 - 10.3 7.7 - 10.3 m.

[ top of current section -- Phalloideae ]

Section Validae -- Pileus margin not appendiculate. Stipe with bulbous base, never having saccate volva, sometimes with subabrupt bulb having fragments of limbate volva.) [ top [ full site list for sect. Validae ]

echinulata Beeli [BEE27] [BAS69] [ B ] (Congo*.) 
Spores [BEE27]: 5.5 - 6.5 4.5 - 5.5 m; est. Q = 1.20) 
Spores [GIL41]: [3/?/?] 5.3 - 5.7 5.0 - 5.2 m; Q = 1.04 - 1.10; Q =1.07.

excelsa (Fr.) Bertillon in Dechambre [BER65] [MycRes:91] [RYV94] [ B ] (Morocco, South Africa ("introduced" per [MycRes:91], but doesnt appear to RET to be the European sp.), Zambia, Zimbabwe ("introduced").)  At least some S. African matl. is not contaxic with the European species.
Spores [from European matl.]: [40/2/1] (7.0-) 7.5 - 10.5 (-13.5) (5.3-) 5.8 - 7.5 (-8.6) m, (L = 8.3 - 9.4 m; L = 8.9 m; W = 6.2 - 6.9 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.23-) 1.24 - 1.52 (-1.57); Q = 1.34 - 1.36; Q = 1.35).
Spores [from S. African matl.]:
?
.

fuliginosa Beeli [BEE27] [BEE35] [BAS69] [ B ] (Congo*, Zambia.)  This taxon is quite extraordinary for its combination of a striate-sulcate pileus margin and amyloid spores. Bas argues that the species belongs in section Validae [BAS69]. The new material is obviously better preserved than the type and may help with the questions of classification. A gray farinose, exannulate stipe is unusual in section Validae
Spores [BEE27]: (7-) 7.5 - 9 7 - 8.5 m; est. Q = 1.06.
Spores [GIL41] (only one spore correctly oriented): (8.5-) 9.4 (-10) (7.5-) 7.7 (-9) m; Q = 1.22.
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [20/1/1] (8.2-) 8.4 - 11.5 (-13.5) 7.4 - 10.5 (-11.5) m, (L = 10.0 m; W = 8.8 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.19 (-1.23); Q = 1.13).

rubescens Pers. : Fr. var. rubescens [BER65] [MycRes:91] [RAW93] [RYV94] [PSS97]  [ B ] (Europe*, Malawi?, Morocco, South Africa (introduced), Zambia?.)  May have been introduced in some regions, but there may also be confusing indigenous taxa that are rubescent; e.g., see [PSS97], which apparently misdetermines the following var.
Spores [European matl.]: [290/12/7] (7.0-) 8.0 - 10.6 (-12.5) (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-8.0) m, (L = 8.4 - 8.6 (-10.1) m; L = 9.2 m; W = 6.0 - 6.6 (-6.7) m; W = 6.3 m; Q = (1.20-) 1.31 - 1.67 (-1.87); Q = 1.37 - 1.56 (-1.58); Q = 1.48).
Spores [S. Africa, poorly dried matl.]: [60/4/4] (7.0-) 7.2 - 10.0 (-13.5) (5.0-) 5.4 - 8.0 (-9.0) m, (L = 7.9 - 8.5 m; L = 8.4 m; W = 5.7 - 6.6 m; W = 6.3 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.21 - 1.53 (-2.11); Q = 1.29 - 1.39; Q = 1.35).

rubescens var. congolensis Beeli [BEE35] [GIL41] [BUY94] [ B ] (Burundi, Congo*, Zambia, Zimbabwe.)  Pileus and stipe staining brownish red; pileus white at first; warts on pileus pyramidal, becoming dark brown to black; annulus margin becoming dark brown to black.
Spores [BEE35], protologue: 6 4.5 m; est. Q = 1.35.
Spores [GIL41]: [6/1/1] 7.7 - 9.8 5.5 - 6.5 m, (L = 8.6 m; W = 5.9 m; Q = 1.45).
Spores [from D. Aroras matl.]: [120/6/5] (6.3-) 7.1 - 10.5 (-11.8) (4.3-) 4.6 - 6.0 (-6.9) m, (L = 7.5 - 9.5 m; L = 8.6 m; W = 5.0 - 5.6 m; W = 5.3 m; Q = (1.28-) 1.36 - 1.92 (-2.36); Q = 1.44 - 1.81; Q = 1.65).

virella E.-J. Gilbert ex Singer [BEE31] [GIL41] [SIN51] [BAS69] [ B ] (Congo*.)
=virescens Beeli non virescens Pers.
Spores [BEE31]: 9 - 11 6.5 - 8 m; est. Q = 1.38
Spores of type [from drawings in GIL41]: [6/1/1] 9.1 - 11.4 6 - 8 m, (Q = 1.21 - 1.52; Q = 1.39).

[ top of current section -- Validae ]

Excluded taxa, poorly known taxa, and taxa not yet categorized to section.  
[ top ]

calabarica Massee [MAS10] [GIL41a] [ B ] (Nigeria*.) (Spores: 7 5 m, with est. Q = 1.4)

capensis Pearson & Stephens nom. inval. et dub. [SK53] [RYV94] (South Africa.) (D. A. Reid & Eicker consider Stephens collection to be pale specimens of A. phalloides; they did not find exsiccata. Ryvarden et al. illustrate this entity under A. phalloides. It is possible that it was A. marmorata.)

chevalleri Hariot & Pat. [PFI80] [ B ] (Malagasay?.) (??)

heinemanniana Walleyn & Verbeken [WallVerb98] [ B ] (Burundi*, Congo.) (?Article could not be found in library recently. Spores: ?.)

praetoriae (Fr.) Gillet nom. dub. [MycRes:91] [ B ] (South Africa.)  Reid and Eicker feel that discovery of new material should cause the publication of a new name due to the confusion over this species in the literature. N.B.: Originally described from North America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY [ top ] [ site level bibliography ]

...INCOMPLETE...

[BAS69] Bas, C. 1969. Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph of its section Lepidella. Persoonia 5(4): 285-579.

[BAS82] Bas, C. 1982. Studies in Amanita--II. Persoonia 11(4): 429-442.

[BEE27] Beeli, M. 1927. Contribution ltude de la flore mycologique du Congo. II. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 59: 101-112.

[BEE31] Beeli, M. 1931. Contribution ltude de la flore mycologique du Congo. Fungi Goossensiani. VIII. Genre Amanita Fr. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 63: 101-109, pl. 7-9.

[BEE32] Beeli, M. 1932. Contribution ltude de la flore mycologique du Congo. Fungi Goossensiani IX. Genre Lepiota ??. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 64: 206-222, pl. ??.

[BEE35] Beeli, M. 1935. Flore iconographique des champignons du Congo. (J. Lebgue, Brussels). 27 pp., 4 pl.

[BEE36] Beeli, M. 1936. Contribution ltude de la flore mycologique du Congo. XI. Fungi Goossensiani XII. Bull. Jard. Bot. tat 14: 83-91, pl. 2-3.

[BEL82] Bell, F. 1982. Amanita singeri Bas in Sardegna. Boll. Gruppo Micol. G. Bresadola 25(1/2): 15-19.

[BER64] Bertault, R. 1964 [1965]. Amanites du Maroc. Bull. Trimestriel Soc. Mycol. France 80(3): 364-384.

[BER65] Bertault, R. 1965. Amanites du Maroc (2e contribution). Bull. Trimestriel Soc. Mycol. France 81: 345-371.

[BER80] Bertault, R. 1980. Amanites du Maroc (3e contribution). Bull. Trimestriel Soc. Mycol. France 96(3): 271-287.

[BerBoi66] Berthet, P. and J. Boidin. 1966. Observations sur quelques hymnomyctes rcolts en Republique Camerounaise. Cah. Mabok 4(1): 27-54.

[BOU41] Bouriquet, M. G. 1941. Quelques macromyctes de Madagascar. Bull. Acad. Malgache 24: 61-64.

[BOU42] Bouriquet, M. G. 1942-43. Notes de mycologie malgache. Bull. Acad. Malgache 25: 12-14, planches.

[BUY94] Buyck, B. 1994. Ubwoba: Les champignons comestibles de louest du Burundi. (Admin. Gn. Cooperation au Developpement, Bruxelles). [ii]+123 pp.

[CHI85] Chipompha, N. W. S. 1985. Some mushrooms of Malawi. Forestry Research Institute of Malawi Record 63: 54 pp. [n.v.]

[CB62] Corner, E. J. H. and C. Bas. 1962. The genus Amanita in Singapore and Malaya. Persoonia. 2(3): 241-304.

[EGR93] Eicker, A., J. V. van Greuning and D. A. Reid. 1993. Amanita reidiia new species from South Africa. Mycotaxon 47: 433-437.

[FOL49] Foley, H. 1949. Une amanite nord-africaine nouvelle Amanita mairei Foley, n. sp. Travaux botaniques ddis Ren Maire. Mm. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N., Hors Sr. 2: 117-120 + pl. IV.

[FOL51] Foley, H. 1951. Quelques observations nouvelles sur Amanita Mairei nob. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 42: 49-50.

[GAL00] Foley, H. 2000. Due Amanita poco frequenti: Amanita gemmata fo. amici e Amanita lepiotoides. Boll. Gruppo Micol. G. Bresadola 43(2): 97-104.

[GIL41] Gilbert, E.-J. 1940-41. Amanitaceae. Iconogr. Mycol. (Milan) 27, suppl. 1(1-3). xx + 427 pp. + pl.

[GIL41a] Gilbert, E.-J. 1941. Notules sur les amanites. (Libraire E. Le Franois, Paris, 23 pp. + 1 pl.

[GOR88] Gorter, G. M. J. A. and A. Eicker. 1988. Gewone Afrikaanse en Engelse name vir die meer algemene Suid-Afrikaanse sampioene en andere makroswamme. S. Afr. Tydsk. Natuurw. & Tegn. 7: 55-64. [n.v.]

[DEG91] De Greef, J. F. Mallaisse, J. Rammeloo and J. Baudart. 1991. Edible mushrooms of the Zambesian woodland area: a nutritional and ecological approach. Proc. XIIIth AETFAT Congr., (Malawi, 2-11 April). [n.v.]

[HAR92] Hrknen, M. 1992. Wild mushrooms, a delicacy in Tanzania. Universitas Helsingiensis 1992(2): 29-31. [n.v.]

[HSM94] Hrknen, M, T. Saarimki, L. Mwasumbi. 1994. Tanzanian mushrooms and their uses 4. Some reddish edible and poisonous Amanita species. Karstenia 34: 47-60.

[HEIM36] Heim, R. 1936 Aperu sur les champignons toziques et comestibles des Colonies franaises. in Curasson, G. Pathol. Exotique Vetrin. Compare 3: 1-31.

[HEIM40] Heim, R. 1940. Une amanite moretelle de lAfrique tropicale. Rev. Mycol. 5: 22-28.

[LL93] Lavin, M. and M. Luckow. 1993. ?. Am. J. Bot 80: 1-14. [Relation of vascular plants of Africa closer to those of North and Central America than to those of South America.] [n.v.]

[LBR85] Levin, M., M. Branch, S. Rappaport and D. Mitchell. 1985. A field guide to the mushrooms of South Africa. Cape Town, Struik Publishers. 168 pp. [n.v.]

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[MCA00] Migliozzi, V. and M. Camboni. 2000. Amanita eliae ed Amanita eliae var. griseovelata stat. nov.: descriione i raccolte laziali. Boll. Gruppo Micol. G. Bresadola 43(2): 125-134.

[MOR84] Morris, B. 1984. Macrofungi of Malawi. Some ethonobotanical notes. Bull. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 18: 48-57. [n.v.]

[MOR86] Morris, B. 1986. Notes on the genus Termitomyces Heim in Malawi. Soc. Malawi J. 39: 40-49. [n.v.]

[MOR87] Morris, B. 1987. Common mushrooms of Malawi. (Fungiflora, Oslo). vi + 108 pp., pl.

[MOR90] Morris, B. 1990. An annotated check-list of the macrofungi of Malawi. Kirkia 13: 323-364. [n.v.]

[PRT77] Parent, G. and D. Thoen. 1977. Food value of edible mushrooms from Upper-Shaba region. Econ. Bot. 31: 436-445.

[Kew6] Pegler, D. N. 1978. A preliminary agaric flora of east Africa. Kew Bull. Addit. Ser. VI. 615 pp.

[PP80] Pegler, D. N. and G. D. Piearce. 1980. The edible mushrooms of Zambia. Kew Bull. 35(3): 475-491.

[PSS97] Pegler, D. N. and D. Shah-Smith. 1997. The genus Amanita (Amanitaceae, Agaricales) in Zambia. Mycotaxon 61: 389-417.

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